In 1961, a border was drawn
between Ngari, western Tibet, and Humla, northwest Nepal. Since
then, Limi has formally been part of Nepal. In 1992, People of Limi
issued their citizen card (Nep. Nagri-Ta).
As far as the history of Limi
is concerned, they have never been politically and culturally separate
from Ngari, in Tibet. Today, the older generation have vivid memories
of the past and still have historical records showing that the Limi
people paid an annual Man tax ( "Me Kral") to Purang Jong,
the district headquarters of Purang, in Tibet, housing tax ( "Thap
Kral" ) to the regional kingdom of Nepal, and monk tax ("Gra
Kral") to Gyangdak monastery (the main monastery of the Drikung
Kagyu Order, located right at the foot of Mt Kailash).
Rinchen Ling Monastery at Welse
village witnesses the Limi People's history the most. The monastery
was established in the 10th century by a most well known Buddhist
master Lotsawa Rinchen Sangpo during the golden age of Guge
Kingdom. Rinchen Ling monastery was named after the founders'
name and it has been evern since the main cultural, historical and
religious center of the three villages of Limi. Today, the monastery
has historical objects and documents to proof the history.
It is really hard to measure
how big Tibet was when it was a free. The concept of a country monitored
by a central government is a fairly new system in Nepal and in Tibet,
and even in Asia. The reality was it was almost impossible to have
a centralized government because of lacking communication, transport
and effective political system. Tibetans lived in Tibet mostly ruled
by some local governors and rich families.
Limi people considered themselves
Tibetans. Their sense of Tibetanness is rooted in their same ethnic
line, religion, culture, language and traditions but not in a country,
as is the case today. There can be no doubt that Limis are Tibetans,
and the same as other Tibeto-Nepalese regions in Nepal.
In this 21st century, Tibetans
outside Tibet, meaning Tibetan in Nepal and India, have preserved
every aspect of the Tibetan culture, tradition and religion, which
were almost gone in Tibet during the Cultural Revolution of China.
The Chinese occupation of Tibet
has had a strong impact on the lives of those Tibetans who lived
in Nepal, it includes Limi. Many families were split in two by the
Chinese invasion. When the Chinese had advanced as far as they wanted,
they drew a border. At that time, the border people of Ngari had
two or more houses which, being nomads, they moved between seasonally.
One story tells how, early in
1960, an official Chinese invitation was received in Limi. It listed
the social benefits and the gift of a quantity of silver corn (the
currency of the time) if delegated members of Limi attended a meeting
in Purang, which had already been invaded. The three villages gathered
for a meeting and decided to perform Tagral in front of Achyi Choedol
Ma (the dharma protector of the Drikung Kagyu tradition). This is
a traditional way of making decisions about the future. There are
several different ways to do Tagral: one is to write down the various
options on separate pieces of paper which are then rolled into a
ball and placed in a container. The container is shaken and the
piece of paper which comes out shows the decision to be taken. Tagral
chose not to go to the meeting in Purang. So now, Limis believe,
if they had gone to the meeting, they would have fallen under the
new government of Tibet, which is now China, as happened to the
neighboring village called Shar.
A glance of Nepal
Nepal is one of the Himalayan
foothill countries, situated in between Tibet, in the east and north,
and India, in the west and south. The country covers 140,800 square
kilometers and the population of Nepal is 22.4 millions. The general
categorization of the origin ethnic of Nepalese are, Indo-Nepalese,
Tibeto-Nepalese and indigenous Nepalese and the main religions of
the country are Hinduism, Buddhism and Muslim and Kati.
The government of Nepal was
a Constitutional Monarchy and a multiparty democracy constitution
is established in 1990. The King of Nepal is the head of the State
and the Prime Minister is the head of the government. Hinduism is
the official religion of the country and Kathmandue is the capital
city. Until 1990, the governing system of Nepal was known as Panchayat.
The country was divided into fourteen zones (Nep. Anzel Panchayat),
seventy-five districts (Nep. Jela Panchayat), 3,524 Village Councils
(Nep. gaun panchayat). Plus, over10,000 populated areas were created
a town council (Nep. nagar panchayat). Since 1990 Village Councils
are renamed as Village Development Committees (Nep. gaun bikas samiti)
and Town Council renamed Municipal Development Committee (Nep. nagar
The main sources of the national
incoming are the tourism, rice, sugarcane, corn, wheat, potatoes,
pulses, live-stocks (number of live animals) and natural resources;
such as limestone, salt, copper, cobalt, iron ore, timbers, quartz
and scenic beauty.
the headquarter of Humla District (Nep. Humla Jela) is headed by
the district chief officer, who is responsible for maintaining law
and coordinating with the Karnali zonal (Nip. Karnali Anzel) ministries,
under the Home Office of Nepal. Humla District is one of the five
districts of Karnali zone such as Humla, Jumla, Kalikoti, Dolpo,
and Mugu The district is made up 27 Village Development Committees
and the population is 54,800. Amongst the people of Humla District,
there are over 35,000 Tibeto-Nepalese, who are known as "Lama"
and the rest Indigenous Nepalese mostly call themselves as "Takur"
The three villages of Limi
together make a Village Development Committee, which is headed by
the thief of Committee (Nep. A-Degsha ) and the vice committee(Nep.
Au-Pa-Degsha ). Each village has a head of village (Nep. Sa-Degsha).
Before 20th century, policing and judicial order
of the villages of Limi were maintained by two the leading families
(Tib. Go-pa) and a supreme family (Tib. Chekyap Family). Still today,
though external law is maintained by the Nepal Government, internal
rules are kept by the villagers as it has been for hundred years.
People of Limi pay their respect to the Go-pa families and the Chekyap
Family, although their authority has no longer recognized by the
Humla District Head Office.